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Use Tag Clouds !!

At the top of the blog page you are given a link to use get more information about Turkey especially Turkish Cuisine. I want you to use almost all words which are tagged and reach more information about them on internet via using those tags. And also you are supposed to write a summary of what you’ve learned from those tags and links.  You can use some special questions to support your summary, for example, what is kebab? or some kind of questions like that. hope you’ll enjoy.

Questions For Students

  1. What do you know about Turkey’s  history?
  2. Which places do you like the most among the videos?
  3. Write a paragraph about the place which you like the most.
  4. Give short information about Aspendos after watching the video.
  5. Which places are you interested in ? Why?
  6. Imagine you travel one of the places given which one do you want to go? And what would you like to do there?
  7. What do you think about Hagia Sophia?
  8. What do you think about Mount Nemrut?
  9. What do you think about Ephesus?
  10. What do you think about the story of Maiden’s Tower?
  11. Have you ever been any of those places?
  12. Write a paragraph about your experience?
  13. Is your city among those places? If answer is yes, where is it? If no, what can be the reasons why isn’t your city among them?
  14. Do you know somewhere else in Turkey such as those interesting places?
  15. Give short information about what you’ve learned.

ANTALYA

Kaleiçi, the restored historical center of the city -with its hotels, bars, clubs, restaurants, and shopping- retains much of its historical character; its restoration won the Golden Apple Tourism Prize and Kaleiçi, with its narrow cobbled streets of historic Turkish and Greek houses, is the old center of Antalya- now mainly hotels, gift shops, and bars. New hotels, such as the Sheraton, stand along the coast above the Konyaalti and Lara beaches.

IZMIR

Izmir Clock Tower (Turkishİzmir Saat Kulesi) is a historic clock tower located at theKonak Square in Konak district of İzmirTurkey. The clock tower was designed by theLevantine French architect Raymond Charles Père and built in 1901 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Abdülhamid II‘s (reigned 1876–1909) accession to the throne.

The clock itself was a gift of German Emperor Wilhelm II (reigned 1888–1918). It is decorated in an elaborate Ottoman architecture. The tower, at a height of 25 m (82 ft), features fourfountains, which are placed around the base in a circular pattern, and the columns are inspired by North African themes

ERZURUM

Twin Minaret Madrasa is an architectural monument of the late Seljuk period in the Turkish city of Erzurum. Built as a theological school a few years before1265,[1] it takes its name, Twin Minaret Madrasa, from the two fluted minarets that crown the monumental façade.

On each side of the entrance there is a panel. On the right side there’s a double-headed eagle. The motif on the left side does not seem to be completed.

Twin Minaret Madrasa is thought to be the model for the Gök Medrese in Sivas.

AGRI

Ishak Pasha Palace (Turkishİshak Paşa Sarayı) is a semi-ruined palace and administrative complex located in the Doğubeyazıt district of Ağrı province of Turkey.

The Ishak Pasha palace is an Ottoman-period palace whose construction was started in 1685 by Colak Abdi Pasha, the bey of Beyazit province. According to the inscription on its door, the Harem Section of the palace was completed by his grandson Ishak (Isaac) Pasha in 1784. [1]

The Palace is more of a complex than a palace; it is the second administrative campus after the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul and the most famous of the palaces built in recent decades.

TRABZON

The Sümela Monastery (TurkishSümela Manastırı) is the monastery of the Panaghia (“All Holy”, the Greek name for the Virgin Mary) at Melá mountain) is a Greek Orthodox monastery, standing at the foot of a steep cliff facing the Altındere valley, in the region of Maçka in Trabzon Province, modern Turkey. Lying at an altitude of approximately 1200 metres, it is a major tourist attraction of Altındere National Park.

RIZE

Zilkale is a medieval castle located in the Fırtına Valley (TurkishFırtına Vadisi, meaning “Stormy Valley”), and is one of the most important historical works in theÇamlıhemşin region) of Rize.[1] The castle is built at an altitude of 750 meters, and sits at the edge of a cliff overlooking the Furtina river approximately 100 meters below. The castle consists of outer walls, middle walls and inner castle.[2] There are guarison quarters, and a possible chapel[3] and head tower. It is believed that the castle was built in 14-15th century.

ADANA

Taşköprü (EnglishStone Bridge) is a Roman bridge spanning the Seyhan River in Adana. Throughout ancient Anatolia and Persia, the bridge was a vital contribution to the trade routes and until 2007, it was one of the oldest bridges in the world to be open to motorized vehicles. It was then set for pedestrians only, now hosting social and cultural events.

The bridge was known with different names throughout the history; Saros bridge, Justinian bridge and finally Taşköprü.

 

Important Places 3

Lake with fish URFA

The photos are from the legendary lake of Sacred Fish (Balikligöl) where Abraham was thrown into the fire by Nimrod. According to the myth, the fire became the lake, and the wood became the fish. The pool is in the courtyard of the mosque of Halil-ur-Rahman, built by the Ayyubids in 1211 and now surrounded by attractive gardens. The fish are fed by the visitors, who make wishes.  The courtyard is very peaceful and it is said that if you see a white fish you will go to heaven

City of suayb

The city of Suayb consists of historical ruins standing in Ozkent village at a distance of 88 kilometres to Sanliurfa. Extending over a large area, the city dates back to the time of the Romans and once surrounded by walls. People believe that the holy Suayb lived here. There is also a cave visited by people as the quarters of Suayb.

halfeti

The Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (855 BC) established a settlement here named Shitamrat. The town was subsequently settled by a number of civilisations and known as Urima (in Greek), Kal’a Rhomeyta or Hesna the Romaye (in Aramaic), to the Byzantines it was known as Romaion Koyla, and the Arab conquerors mutated this name to Kal’at-ül Rum.

The town was fortified and was besieged by the Mameluks in 1280, who conquer the outlying Christian villages but were unable to break into the fortress, which eventually fell to Sultan Eshref in 1290. The Mameluks repaired the city walls and renamed the place Kal’at-ül Müslimin although the names Urumgala and Rumkale persisted. The town was brought under Ottoman rule by Selim I.

 Halil Rahman Mosque, Sanli Urfa
In the land which encircles the Firat (Euphrates) and the Dicle (Tigris) Rivers, lived Abraham, the patriarch claimed by three global religions. Some think that Abraham was born in what is now called Sanli Urfa, supposed to have been Ur of the Chaldees, and later moved south from the city to Harran. In Harran, which was an important Mesopotamian historic and cultural center, the ruins of one of the largest and oldest Islamic universities can be seen among the archeological remains. Restoration of the 18th-century mansion, Kucuk Haci Mustafa Hacikamiloglu Konagi, is now complete. It has reopened as an art gallery.

RIDVANİYE MOSQUE

The 17th century Ottoman Ridvaniye Mosque aria the Firfirli Mosque, formerly the Church of the Apostles, are worth a detour. The archaeology and ethnography museum, one of the best in Turkey houses important Neolithic and Chalcolithic finds from the Lower Firat region. To capture the spirit of Sanli Urfa, wander through the vaulted eastern bazaar and linger in the courtyards of the old hans (inns); try to find Gumruk Hani and Barutcu Hani-they are the the most interesting

Harran, behive houses

The main tourist attraction in the present Harran are the beehive houses which are still built the same as 3000 years ago, mud houses, no wood, conical shaped. There are exhibit houses for tourists and you can visit it inside, take pictures even buy a Palestinian Kaffyieh (headdress worn by Palestinian men) as a symbol of solidarity

 Karakoyun: Aqueduct it is between the Millet bridge and Samsat bridge. It is estimated that bridge built by Byzantine Empire Jünstinyen at the year of 525

St. Eyyüp, St. Elyasa and Rahime Hatun Mausoleums (Eyyüp Nebi Village-Viranşehir): It is rumored that the burial location of the Prophet Eyyüp is located at the Eyyüp Nebi Village whivh is 12 kilometers away from the Viranşehir district. Prophet Eyyüp is saved from his woulds after a seven year sufferage as he baths with the curative waters granted by the God. After that, he lives in Eyyüp Nebi Village with his wife, Rahime Hatun. Mausoleums of the both persons are located inside this village.

The grave of St. Elyasa whom had walked for three months in order to see Prophet Eyyüp and died before seeing him although he was so close is also located in this village. According to the rumors, when IV. Murat is on his military campaign to Baghdath, he had a break in Eyyüp Nebi Village and stays for one night. He dreams that “ the place where you rest is the position of Prophet Eyyüp. Build a mosque and a mausoleum to the location where your horse whinns and hits his leg three times to the ground when you awoke”.

Again according to another rumor told by the local folk, there is a holy and sacred rock mass located inside the borders of the village to which Prophet Eyyüp had applied his back. The visitors of Prophet Eyyüp initially visit the mausoleum of St. Elyasa (Prophet Eyyüp had told that, “The ones that are coming to visit my mausoleum would visit the mausoleum of St. Elyasa first.”) , later they visit the mausoleum of Prophet Eyyüp, later on the mausoleum of Rahime Hatun and finally the holy stone to which Prophet Eyyüp had applied his back

Kelaynak (Bold ibis) Birds

These birds are on the verge of extinction and can bee seen only in the Birecik District of Sanliurfa. Coming from the Ibidae family, these birds are given the prefix “bold” for their featherless heads and necks. Also visible in Morocco and Algeria, kelaynak birds fly to Ethiopia and Madagascar in winter and return to Birecik starting from mid-February. They nest in rocks and mate here to leave in mid-July. Since 1984, an annual festival takes place each year on 12 April for these birds. For more information on Kelaynak

Mount Nemrut

At the junction of the East and West civilisations, Nemrut Dagi (Mount Nemrut) is one of the most astounding sites in Turkey: A collection of colossal statues on a remote mountain 2150m high, adorning the temple and tomb of King Antiochus. Unknown until 1881 when an Ottoman geologist discovered these 10 metre-high stone heads, archaeological work began in 1953 to uncover their history.

Nemrut Dağı has since been a significant attraction, with thousands coming at sunrise and sunset to see the stones in the best possible light. It has been designated a World Cultural Heritage site by UNESCO, and is one of the most important National Parks in the country. In addition to the statues, the entire site includes art from the Commagene civilisation, the Eskikale (Old Castle), Yenikale (New Castle), Karakus Hill and Cendere Bridge. Most people use the nearby towns of Malatya, Kahta or Adıyaman as a base, and the road to the summit is only open from mid-April to mid-October because of heavy snow the rest of the year

Sesönk (Obelisk): The Monumental tomb is located at 33 km south-east of Besni district and was built by Commagene’s King Mithradates II on Kızıldağ Mountain.The tomb was surrounded by 3 columns, each having 10 meters height. On these columns are embossed figures of women, men and lions .

Cendere Bridge: It is located at the north-east of Karakuş Tumulus , 55 kilometres from Adıyaman .Cendere Bridge consists of a big arch built with 92 large shattered stones on two main rocks at the most narrow place of Kahta river and a secondary arch at the east side of the bridge.

Gerger Castle: The castle is located at the edge of rocks overlooking the Euphrates River. It is believed the castle has a history that extends all the way to Hittites, more than 3,500 years ago. The castle was also an important place for the Kommagene kingdom; there is a huge relief of king Samos within the castle walls

The most significant archeological ruins in Gerger are the caves in the Euphrates canyon wall. These caves, which are believed to contain artifacts from Kommagenean Kingdom, are now under the waters of the Atatürk dam.

Pirin (Perre) Cave Tombs: Perre was a burial site during early Roman period. Digs around the site have so far revealed 208 cave tombs. The city of Perre was one of the largest during the Roman period; it was also an important city during Kommagene and Byzantium periods. The site, which is 3 miles from Adıyaman contains a Roman fountain (still in use) as well as castle walls, parts of which are still visible

 Old Kahta (Arsemia): Arsemia was the summer capital of Kommagene. Its most significant archeological features are a marble relief of king Mithras and one of Antiochus shaking hand with Hercules. At the site there is also a tunnel (450 feet long) that is carved in the mountain. The tunnel leads to the Kahta River and was built, it is believed for religious ceremonies as well as a escape route in case of trouble. In Old Kahta itself there is an ancient castle that was last repaired by the Memluks in 8th century. The castle too has a steep stairway that leads all the way to the river

The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (Turkish: Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi) is located on the south side of Ankara Castle in the Atpazarı area in Ankara, Turkey. It consists of the old Ottoman Mahmut Paşa bazaar storage building, and the Kurşunlu Han. Because of Atatürk‘s desire to establish a Hittite museum, the buildings were bought upon the suggestion of Hamit Zübeyir Koşay, who was then Culture Minister, to the National Education Minister, Saffet Arıkan. After the remodelling and repairs were completed (1938–1968), the building was opened to the public as the Ankara Archaeological Museum. It is one of the richest museums in the world.[citation needed]

Today, Kurşunlu Han, used as an administrative building, houses the work rooms, library, conference hall, laboratory and workshop. The old bazaar building houses the exhibits. Within this Ottoman building, the museum has a number of exhibits of Anatolian archeology. They start with the Paleolithic era, and continue chronologically through the Neolithic, Early Bronze, Assyrian trading colonies, Hittite, Phrygian, Urartian, Greek, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman periods. There is also an extensive collection of artifacts from the excavations at Karain, Çatalhöyük, Hacılar, Canhasan, Beyce Sultan, Alacahöyük, Kültepe, Acemhöyük, Boğazköy (Gordion), Pazarlı, Altıntepe, Adilcevaz and Patnos as well as examples of several periods.

The exhibits of gold, silver, glass, marble and bronze works date back as far as the second half of the first millennium BC. The coin collections, with examples ranging from the first minted money to modern times, represent the museum’s rare cultural treasures.

Museum of Anatolian Civilizations reaching the present time with its historical buildings and its deeply rooted history was elected as the first European Museum of the Year in Switzerland on April 19, 1997.

Anıtkabir (literally, “memorial tomb”) is the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader of the Turkish War of Independence and the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey. It is located in Ankara and was designed by architects Professor Emin Onat and Assistant Professor Orhan Arda, whose proposal beat 48 other entries from several countries in a competition held by the Turkish Government in 1941 for a “monumental mausoleum” for Atatürk.

The site is also the final resting place of İsmet İnönü, the second President of Turkey, who was interred there after he died in 1973. His tomb faces the Atatürk Mausoleum, on the opposite side of the Ceremonial Ground

Gençlik Park

 The oldest park in Ankara (1943) Gençlik Parkı, used to be the only place for the residents of Ankara to enjoy the taste of nature, complete with pond and greenery.

This 38 hectares park is where today’s middle-aged generation spent their youth. The park houses what once Ankara’s only amusement park. There are also tea gardens, restaurants, outdoor cafes, outdoor theatre performances and a large pond on which you can row or water-cycle.

 Atatürk Orman Çiftliği

 Some visitors complain about the rareness of green lands in Ankara to go on weekends. However, just at the city center Atatürk Orman Çiftliği (The Atatürk Forest Farm) welcomes them with its zoo, which is the largest of the country, Yörük (nomadic) tents, milk and milk products. Atatürk Orman Çiftliği submits us several facilities being a place to take a breath in Ankara while eating meatball with bread as wandering around, or watching the animals unfortunately we can no more meet in nature now.

After the establishment of Turkish Republic, Atatürk immediately began reform movements in various fields to raise Turkey to the level of developed countries. Agriculture is one of them and he ordered to establish sample farms throughout the country ad the demonstration, teaching of new techniques. Atatürk Orman Çiftliği of Ankara being the first sample founded in 1925 and named after him.

Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu Street

One of the main shopping streets in Ankara and most beloved of tourists is Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu. The area is full of old traditional Turkish shops, selling traditional products like the famous hand-woven carpets, leather accessories and lots of other goods of local origin at the best price possible

Ankara Citadel: The foundations of the citadel were laid by the Galatians on a prominent lava outcrop, and completed by the Romans; the Byzantines and Seljuks made restorations and additions. The area around and inside the citadel is the oldest part of Ankara and many fine examples of traditional architecture can be seen within the citadel walls. There are also lovely green areas in which to relax. It’s well-known that the Ankara region was the cradle of “vino” (Hatti and Hittite) in 2,000 B.C.; many restored traditional Turkish houses in the area of the citadel have found new life as restaurants,serving local and international dishes and wine.

 Castle Area Shopping

The shopping around the Castle area is very original and unique in Ankara. The people here like to bargain hard, so if you’re good at bargaining you’ll enjoy this place. The majority of the shopkeepers are women selling all kinds of stuff like souvenirs, silver items, carpets and antiques, and if you’re lucky you might actually get to see the hard work done before the goods are displayed in the shop window.

Tunalı Hilmi Avenue

Tunali Hilmi Avenue is one of the loveliest streets in the city. It is full of different kinds of shops, boutiques and souvenir shops. The area is slightly posh and offers all kinds of goods at a slightly higher price than in other districts. The shopping here is really great especially for those who prefer to shop in the open air

Bakırcılar Çarşısı Bazaar

Bakırcılar Çarşısı is a well known Ankara bazaar famous for its wide range of copper goods, but, if you look hard, you’ll find jewelry, antiques and hand-made carpets. The bazaar welcomes everyone who prefers original, hand-made products of a very high quality

Roman Theatre: The remains, including proscene (stage), and scene (backstage), can be seen outside the citadel. Roman statues found here are exhibited in the Anatolian Civilizations Museum.The audience area is still under excavation.

Temple of Augustus: The temple can be found in the Ulus quarter of the city. It was built by the Galatian King Pylamenes in 10 A.D. as a tribute to Augustus, and was reconstructed by the Romans on the ancient Ankara Acropolis in the 2nd century. It is important today for the ‘Monument Ancyranum’, the sole surviving “Political Testament” of Augustus, detailing his achievements, that is inscribed on its walls in Latin and Greek. In the 5th century the temple was converted to a church by the Byzantines.

Roman Bath: The bath, situated on Cankiri Avenue in Ulus, has the typical features of Roman baths: a frigidarium (cold section), tepidarium (cool section) and caldarium(hot section). They were built in the time of the Emperor Caracalla (3rd century A.D.) in honour of Asclepios, the god of medicine. Today, only the basement and first floors remain.

Atakule is a 125m (410 feet) high communications and observation tower located in the Çankaya district of central Ankara, Turkey and is the primary landmark of the city. As the district of Çankaya is itself on a hill, the tower can be spotted from almost anywhere in the city during clear days. The tower’s design came from architect Ragıp Buluç and construction lasted from 1986 to 1989. The top section of the tower houses an open terrace and a revolving restaurant named Sevilla, which makes a full 360 degree rotation in one hour. On top of Sevilla is another restaurant, Dome, which is non-revolving and located directly under the cupola. Under the terrace is a café, named UFO. The bottom structures house a shopping mall and several indoor and outdoor restaurants.

In Turkish ata means ancestor usually used to refer Atatürk and kule means tower

The Kocatepe Mosque is the largest mosque in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. It was built between 1967 and 1987 in the Kocatepe quarter in Kızılay, and its size and prominent situation have made it a landm The idea of building the Kocatepe Mosque dates back to the 1940s. On December 8, 1944, Ahmet Hamdi Akseki, the Vice-President of Turkish Religious Affairs, along with seventy-two founding members, established a society known as the “Society to Build a Mosque in Yenişehir, Ankara.” In 1947 this society called for projects to be drawn up by architects, but none of the submitted projects were accepted.

In 1956, through the efforts of the late Adnan Menderes, Prime Minister of the time, land was allocated for the project to build a mosque in Ankara, and a request for projects was made once again in 1957. This time thirty-six projects were evaluated, with the joint project of Vedat Dalokay and Nejat Tekelioğlu being chosen as the one to be implemented.[1]

The accepted project was an innovative and modern design. The construction started, but due to heavy critique from conservatives for its modernist look, the construction was stopped at the foundation level. Vedat Dalokay later built a modified version of the Kocatepe Mosque after winning an international competition for the Shah Faisal Masjid in Islamabad, Pakistan in 1969. This mosque, which can accommodate 100,000 worshippers, is one of the largest mosques of the world, and accepted by many as the frontiers of modern Islamic architecture.

After a third architectural competition in 1967, a more conservative or nostalgic design by Hüsrev Tayla and M. Fatin Uluengin was chosen to be built. Completed in 1987, this project is built in a neo-classical Ottoman architecture style, and is an eclectic building made up from the Selimiye mosque in Edirne, and the Sehzade and Sultan Ahmet mosques in Istanbul

ark that can be seen from almost anywhere in central Ankara.

KIZILCAHAMAM

The area is mountain and forest, a geographical boundary between central Anatolia and the Black Sea regions.

Kızılcahamam itself is a quiet market town known for its healing hot springs and mineral waters. Nearby Soğuksu National park contains a scout camp and walks, and areas for picnics in the forest.

The Mevlâna museum, located in Konya, Turkey, is the mausoleum of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi, a Sufi mystic also known as Mevlâna or Rumi. It was also the dervish lodge (tekke) of the Mevlevi order, better known as the whirling dervishes.

Sultan ‘Ala’ al-Din Kayqubad, the Seljuk sultan who had invited Mevlâna to Konya, offered his rose garden as a fitting place to bury Baha’ ud-Din Walad (also written as Bahaeddin Veled), the father of Mevlâna, when he died on 12 January 1231. When Mevlâna died in 17 December 1273 he was buried next to his father.

Mevlâna’s successor Hüsamettin Çelebi decided to build a mausoleum (Kubbe-i-Hadra) over his grave of his master. The Seljuk construction, under architect Behrettin Tebrizli, was finished in 1274. Gürcü Hatun, the wife of the Seljuk Emir Suleyman Pervane, and Emir Alameddin Kayser funded the construction. The cylindrical drum of the dome originally rested on four pillars. The conical dome is covered with turquoise faience.

However several sections were added until 1854. Selimoğlu Abdülvahit decorated the interior and performed the woodcarving of the catafalques.

The decree of 6 April 1926 confirmed that the mausoleum and the dervish lodge (Dergah) were to be turned into a museum. The museum opened on 2 March 1927. In 1954 it was renamed as “Mevlâna museum”.

One enters the museum through the main gate (Devisan Kapısı) to the marble-paved courtyard. The kitchen of the dervishes (Matbah) and the Hurrem Pasha tomb, built during the reign of Süleyman the Magnificent, are located on the right side. On the left side are 17 dervish cells lined up, covered with small domes, and built during the reign of Murad III. The kitchen was also used for educating the dervishes, teaching them the Sema. The ṣadirvan (washing fountain) in the middle of the courtyard was built by Yavuz Sultan Selim.

One enters the mausoleum and the small mosque through the Tomb gate (Türbe Kapisi). Its two doors are decorated with Seljuk motifs and a Persian text from mollah Abdurrahman Cami dating from 1492. It leads into the small Tilavet Room (Tilavet Odası) decorated with rare and precious Ottoman calligraphy in the sülüs, nesih, and talik styles. In this room the Koran was continuously recited and chanted before the mausoleum was turned into a museum.

One enters the mausoleum from the Tilavet Room through a silver door made, according to an inscription on the door, by the son of Mehmed III in 1599. On the left side stand six coffins in rows of three of the dervishes (Horasan erler) who accompanied Mevlâna and his family from Belkh. Opposite to them on a raised platform, covered by two domes, stand the cenotaphs belonging to the descendants of the Mevlâna family (wife and children) and some high-ranking members of the Mevlevi order.

The sarcophagus of Mevlâna is located under the green dome (Kibab’ulaktab). It is covered with brocade, embroidered in gold with verses from the Koran. This, and all other covers, were a gift of sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1894. The actual burial chamber is located below it. Next to Mevlâna’s sarcophagus are several others, including the sarcophagi of his father Bahaeddin Veled and his son Sultan Veled. The wooden sarcophagus of Mevlâna dates from the 12th century now stands over the grave of his father. It is a masterpiece of Seljuk woodcarving. The silver lattice, separating the sarcophagi from the main section, was built by Ilyas in 1579.

The Ritual Hall (Semahane) was built under the reign of Süleyman the Magnificent at the same time as the adjoining small mosque. In this hall the dervishes used to perform the Sema, the ritual dance, on the rhythm of musical instruments such as, the kemence (a small violin with three strings), the keman (a larger violin), the halile (a small cymbal), the daire (a kind of tambourine), the kudüm (a drum), the rebab (a guitar) and the flute, played once by Mevlâna himself. All these instruments are on display in this room, together with an ancient Kirşehir praying rug (18th c.), dervish clothes (Mevlâna’s included) and four crystal[citation needed] mosque lamps (16th c., Egyptian Mameluk period). In this room one can also see a rare Divan-i-Kebir (a collection of lyric poetry) from 1366 and two fine specimens of Masnavis (books of poems written by Mevlâna) from 1278 and 1371.

The adjoining small mosque (Masjid) is now used for the exhibition of a collection of old, illustrated korans and extremely valuable prayer rugs. There is also a box (Sakal-i Ṣerif), decorated with nacre, containing the Holy Beard of Muhammad.

The Mevlâna shrine aside, Alaaddin Camii is Konya’s most important mosque. It bestrides Alaaddin Tepesi at the opposite end of Mevlâna Caddesi. The mosque of Alaeddin Keykubad I, Seljuk Sultan of Rum from 1219 to 1231, it is a great rambling building designed by a Damascene architect in Arab style and finished in 1221. Over the centuries it was embellished, refurbished, ruined and restored.

The grand entrance on the northern side incorporates decoration from earlier Byzantine and Roman buildings. It used to lead through the courtyard and between two huge Seljuk türbes (tombs) into the mosque; today a less imposing eastern doorway serves as the main entrance.

While the mosque’s exterior is generally plain, the interior is a forest of old marble columns surmounted with recycled Roman and Byzantine capitals. There’s also a fine wooden mimber and an old marble mihrab framed by modern Seljuk-style blue-and-black calligraphy.

Çatalhöyük (Turkish pronunciation: [tʃaˈtaɫhøjyc]; also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for “fork”, höyük for “mound”) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC. It is the largest and best preserved Neolithic site found to date.

Çatalhöyük is located overlooking wheat fields in the Konya Plain, southeast of the present-day city of Konya (ancient Iconium) in Turkey, approximately 140 km (87 mi) from the twin-coned volcano of Mount Hasan. The eastern settlement forms a mound which would have risen about 20 m (66 ft) above the plain at the time of the latest Neolithic occupation. There is also a smaller settlement mound to the west and a Byzantine settlement a few hundred meters to the east. The prehistoric mound settlements were abandoned before the Bronze Age. A channel of the Çarşamba river once flowed between the two mounds, and the settlement was built on alluvial clay which may have been favourable for early agriculture.

Pamukkale, meaning “cotton castle” in Turkish, is a natural site in Denizli Province in southwestern Turkey. The city contains hot springs and travertines, terraces of carbonate minerals left by the flowing water. It is located in Turkey’s Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year.

The ancient city of Hierapolis was built on top of the white “castle” which is in total about 2,700 metres (8,860 ft) long, 600 m (1,970 ft) wide and 160 m (525 ft) high. It can be seen from the hills on the opposite side of the valley in the town of Denizli, 20 km away.

Tourism is and has been a major industry. People have bathed in its pools for thousands of years. As recently as the mid-20th century, hotels were built over the ruins of Heropolis, causing considerable damage. An approach road was built from the valley over the terraces, and motor bikes were allowed to go up and down the slopes. When the area was declared a World Heritage Site, the hotels were demolished and the road removed and replaced with artificial pools. Wearing shoes in the water is prohibited to protect the deposits.

Hierapolis (Greek: Ἱεράπολις ‘holy city’) was the ancient Greco-Roman city on top of hot springs located in south western Turkey near Denizli.

Hierapolis is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The hot springs there have been used as a spa since the 2nd century BCE, and people came to soothe their ailments, with many of them retiring or dying here. The large necropolis is filled with sarcophagi, including the Sarcophagus of Marcus Aurelius Ammianos.

The great baths were constructed with huge stone blocks without the use of cement, and consisted of various closed or open sections linked together. There are deep niches in the inner section of the bath, library, gymnasium and other closed or open locations. The complex, which was constructed in the 2nd century BCE, constitutes a good example of vault type architecture. The complex is now an archaeological museum.

Laodikeia
Archaic Laodikeia city that is 6 km to the north of the Denizli Province is established at a very suitable point from the geographical point of view in the south of the Lycos river.The name of the city is mostly referred to as “Laodikeia” at the side of Lycos” in the archaic references. In accordance with the historian Pliny, Laodikeia has been constructed on the ruins of a village that was first called as Diospolis “City of Zeus” and then as Rhoas. The name Diospolis is a symbol of the importance given to Zeus cult there. The name Rhoas may belong to any of the native Anatolian languages.

In accordance with other archaic sources, the city was established by Antiokhos II between the years 263 – 261 BC and the name of Antiokhos’s wife, Laodike, has been given to the city. Laodikeia is one of the most important and famous cities of Anatolia in the 1st century BC. The big artistic works in the city belong to this period and the gladiator fights promoted the growing importance of the city. The Romans have given a special importance to Laodikeia. Famous statesman and preacher Cicero came to this city in 50 BC and dealt with some legal problems of the city. Again at those dates, the Romans have made Laodikeia the centre of Kibyra convents. The Roman Emperor Hadrianus visited the city in 129 AD and wrote letters to Rome from there,
Evidence shows that how good the relations between the City and Rome were the status, wealth and privileges that Zeno family had. A man named Polemon from this family has been assigned as a director to Kilikia and Pontus by Antonius.

The inscriptions and coins provide information about the religious life of Laodikeia. Zeus Laodiokos figure seen on many coins belonging to the Empire period is the indication of the importance given to Zeus cult in this city. The information we have in relation with the late periods of Laodikeia is very limited.
A few texts provide information to us about the condition of Laodikeia during the beginning periods. As is the case for other locations, Christianity has affected the Jewish community first.

Existence of one of the famous 7 churches of Small Asia in this city shows the importance of Christianity in this city. We don’t know the reason why Laodikeia that was established near Goncalı and Eskihisar villages in archaic period was completely left. But, it is not difficult to guess that big earthquakes played a role in this event.A very big earthquake that took place in 194 AD and destroyed the city.

The Grand Bazaar (Turkish: Kapalıçarşı, meaning Covered Bazaar) in Istanbul is one of the largest and oldest covered markets in the world, with more than 58 covered streets and over 4,000 shops which attract between 250,000 and half a million visitors daily The grand bazaar began construction in 1455 and opened in 1461. It is well known for its jewelry, pottery, spice, and carpet shops. Many of the stalls in the bazaar are grouped by the type of goods, with special areas for leather coats, gold jewelry and the like.

The bazaar contains two bedestens (domed masonry structures built for storage and safe keeping), the first of which was constructed between 1455 and 1461 by the order of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. The bazaar was vastly enlarged in the 16th century, during the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, and in 1894 underwent a major restoration following an earthquake.

Today, the grand bazaar houses two mosques, two hamams, four fountains, and multiple restaurants and cafes. The sprawling complex consists of 12 major buildings and has 22 doors.

The Maiden’s Tower (Turkish: Kız Kulesi), also known in the ancient Greek and medieval Byzantine periods as Leander’s Tower (Tower of Leandros), sits on a small islet located at the southern entrance of Bosphorus strait 200 m (220 yd) off the coast of Üsküdar in Istanbul, Turkey

Maiden’s Tower was first built by the ancient Athenian general Alcibiades in 408 BC to control the movements of the Persian ships in the Bosphorus strait.[2] Back then the tower was located between the ancient cities of Byzantion and Chrysopolis. The tower was later enlarged and rebuilt as a fortress by the Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus in 1110 AD, and was restored and slightly modified several times by the Ottoman Turks, most significantly in 1509 and 1763.[3] The most recent facelift was made in 1998.[4] Steel supports were added around the ancient tower as a precaution after the 17 August 1999 earthquake.

Used as a lighthouse for centuries, the interior of the tower has been transformed into a popular café and restaurant, with an excellent view of the former Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman capital.[5] Private boats make trips to the tower several times a day

There are many legends about the construction of the tower and its location. According to the most popular Turkish legend, a sultan had a much beloved daughter. One day, an oracle prophesied that she would be killed by a venomous snake on her 18th birthday. The sultan, in an effort to thwart his daughter’s early demise by placing her away from land so as to keep her away from any snakes, had the tower built in the middle of the Bosphorus to protect his daughter until her 18th birthday. The princess was placed in the tower, where she was frequently visited only by her father.

On the 18th birthday of the princess, the sultan brought her a basket of exotic sumptouous fruits as a birthday gift, delighted that he was able to prevent the prophecy. Upon reaching into the basket, however, an asp that had been hiding among the fruit bit the young princess and she died in her father’s arms, just as the oracle had predicted. Hence the name Maiden’s Tower.

The older name Leander’s Tower comes from another story about a maiden: the ancient Greek myth of Hero and Leander. Hero was a priestess of Aphrodite who lived in a tower at Sestos, at the edge of the Hellespont (Dardanelles). Leander (Leandros), a young man from Abydos on the other side of the strait, fell in love with her and would swim every night across the Hellespont to be with her. Hero would light a lamp every night at the top of her tower to guide his way.

Succumbing to Leander’s soft words, and to his argument that Aphrodite, as goddess of love, would scorn the worship of a virgin, Hero allowed him to make love to her. This routine lasted through the warm summer. But one stormy winter night, the waves tossed Leander in the sea and the breezes blew out Hero’s light, and Leander lost his way, and was drowned. Hero threw herself from the tower in grief and died as well. The name Maiden’s Tower might also have its origins in this ancient story.

Due to the vicinity and similarity between the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus, Leander’s story was attributed to the tower by the ancient Greeks and later the Byzantines.

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a historical mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). The mosque is popularly known as the Blue Mosque for the blue tiles adorning the walls of its interior.

It was built between 1609 and 1616, during the rule of Ahmed I. Like many other mosques, it also comprises a tomb of the founder, a madrasah and a hospice. While still used as a mosque, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque has also become a popular tourist attraction

After the Peace of Zsitvatorok (1606) and the unfavourable result of the wars with Persia, Sultan Ahmed I decided to build a large mosque in Istanbul as recompense. This would be the first imperial mosque to be built in more than forty years. Whereas his predecessors had paid for their mosques with their war booty, Sultan Ahmed I had to withdraw the funds from the treasury, because he had not won any notable victories. This provoked the anger of the ulema, the Muslim legal scholars.

The mosque was to be built on the site of the palace of the Byzantine emperors, facing the Hagia Sophia (at that time the most venerated mosque in Istanbul) and the hippodrome, a site of great symbolic significance. Large parts of the southern side of the mosque rest on the foundation and vaults of the Great Palace. Several palaces had already built there, most notably the palace of Sokollu Mehmet Paşa, so these first had to be bought at a considerable cost and pulled down. Large parts of the Sphendone (curved tribune with U-shaped structure of the hippodrome) were also removed to make room for the new mosque. Construction of the mosque started in August 1609 when the sultan himself came to break the first sod. It was his intention that this would become the first mosque of his empire. He appointed his royal architect Sedefhar Mehmet Ağa, a pupil and senior assistant of the famous architect Mimar Sinan to be in charge of the construction. The organization of the work was described in meticulous detail in eight volumes, now found in the library of the Topkapı Palace. The opening ceremonies were held in 1617 (although the inscription on the gate of the mosque says 1616). The sultan could now pray in the royal box (hünkâr mahfil). The building was not yet finished in this last year of his reign, as the last accounts were signed by his successor Mustafa I. Known as the Blue Mosque, Sultan Ahmed Mosque is one of the most impressive monuments in the world

Pierre Loti is located in Eyup,which belongs to Fatih district,on the european side of Bosphorus, Istanbul.There is a cafe(tea house) which has an incredible view of Golden Horn,from Eyup to Eminonu.There are also touristic hotels and small souvenir shops.The name Pierre Loti comes from the French writer and naval Louis Marie Julien Viaud,who lived in Istanbul.He usually visited the tea house in Eyup, Golden Horn and he admired the view of Golden Horn.He had a warm relationship with the Turkish people around him,he also got inlove with a Turkish lady.He wrote a book about his life in Istanbul.

Assos (Greek: Άσσος), also known as Behramkale or for short Behram, is a small historically rich town in Çanakkale Province, Ayvacık District, Turkey. Aristotle lived here and opened an Academy.[when?][citation needed] The city was also visited by St. Paul. Today Assos is a Aegean-coast seaside retreat amid ancient ruins.

The city was founded from 1000-900 BC by Aeolian colonists from Lesbos, who specifically are said to have come from Methymna. The settlers built a Doric Temple to Athena on top of the crag in 530 BC.[2][not in citation given] From this temple Hermias of Atarneus, a student of Plato, ruled Assos, the Troad and Lesbos for a period of time, under which the city experienced its greatest prosperity. (Strangely, Hermias was actually the slave of the ruler of Atarneus.[1]) Under his rule, he encouraged philosophers to move to the city. As part of this, in 348 BC Aristotle came here and married King Hermeias’s niece, Pythia, before leaving for Lesbos three years later in 345 BC. This ‘golden period’ of Assos ended several years later when the Persians arrived, and subsequently tortured Hermias to death.[2]

The Persians were driven out by Alexander the Great in 334 BC. Between 241 and 133 BC, the city was ruled by the Kings of Pergamon. However, in 133 BC, the Pergamons lost control of the city as it was absorbed by the Roman empire.[1]

St. Paul also visited the city during his third missionary journey through Asia Minor, which was between 53-57 AD, on his way to Lesbos. From this period onwards, Assos shrunk to a small village, as it has remained ever since. Ruins around Assos continue to be excavated.[2]

The pillars from the ancient port lay in the harbor for over a millennia. Eventually they were probably sold.

In the early 1900s an attempt was made to move the contents of the Temple of Athena. Much of the art has been moved to museums like the Louvre.[1] The art found includes pictures both of mythical creatures and heraldic events.

Many of the old buildings of Assos are in ruins today, but Behramkale (the city’s modern name) is still active. It still serves as a port for Troad. Temple ruins remain.

Down the steep seaward side of the hill at the water’s edge is the hamlet called Iskele (meaning Dock or Wharf), with old stone houses now serving as inns, pensions and restaurants.

There is a small pebbly beach. There are boat tours and tours of the hamlet itself. Although the one lane road to the hamlet is steep with sheer drops, the sea front has a constant stream of cars and minibuses arriving from dawn to dusk.

Alexandria Troas (“Alexandria of the Troad“, modern Turkish: Eski Stambul) is an ancient Greek city situated on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of Turkey‘s western coast, a little south of Tenedos (modern Bozcaada). It is located in the modern Turkish province of Çanakkale. The site sprawls over an estimated 400 hectares (1,000 acres); among the few structures still extant today are a ruined bath and gymnasium complex[1] and a recently uncovered stadium.[2]

According to Strabo, this site was first called Sigeia;[1] around 306 BC Antigonus refounded the city as the much-expanded Antigonia Troas by settling the people of five other towns in Sigeia,[3] including the once influential city of Neandria.[4] In its early years, Troas was a port city that supplied the Dorians with resources and trade. The city was conquered by the Helladic people and was nearly destroyed. It was rebuilt early in the next century and the name was changed by Lysimachus to Alexandria Troas, in memory of Alexander III of Macedon (Pliny merely states that the name changed from Antigonia to Alexandria[5]). As the chief port of north-west Asia Minor, the place prospered greatly in Roman times, becoming a “free and autonomous city” as early as 188 BC,[3] and the existing remains sufficiently attest its former importance. In its heyday, the city may have had a population of about 100,000.[4] Strabo mentions that a Roman colony was created at the location in the reign of Augustus, named Colonia Alexandria Augusta Troas (called simply Troas during this period). Augustus, Hadrian and the rich grammarian Herodes Atticus contributed greatly to its embellishment; the aqueduct still preserved is due to the latter. Constantine considered making Troas the capital of the Roman Empire

Çimenlik Castle, along with the Kilitbahir Castle on the opposite banks of the straits, was constructed by Mehmet II (the Conqueror) in the 15th century as a strategic prelude to his assault on Constantinople. The castle grounds are full of old cannons from the battles, and if you venture into one of those dark passages, you can get a glimpse of the Turkish positions, as well as the sections of the roof that were destroyed by incoming artillery

Kilitbahir Castle (Turkish: Kilitbahir Kalesi) is a fortress on the west side of the Dardanelles, opposite the city of Çanakkale, where there is a corresponding fortress (Kale-i Sultaniye), from which Çanakkale takes its name. The two castles were constructed by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in 1463 to control the straits at their narrowest point. Kilitbahir’s name, meaning “lock of the sea”, reflects this defensive purpose.[1]

Troy (Hittite: Wilusa or Truwisa;[1][2] Greek: Ἴλιον, Ilion, and Τροία, Troia; Latin: Trōia and Īlium;[3] Turkish: Truva and Troia) was a city, both factual and legendary, located in northwest Anatolia in what is now Turkey, southeast of the Dardanelles and beside Mount Ida. It is best known for being the focus of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle and especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey seems to show that the name Ἴλιον (Ilion) formerly began with a digamma: Ϝίλιον (Wilion). This was later supported by the Hittite form Wilusa.

A new city called Ilium was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople and declined gradually during the Byzantine era.

In 1865, English archaeologist Frank Calvert excavated trial trenches in a field he had bought from a local farmer at Hisarlık, and in 1868 Heinrich Schliemann, wealthy German businessman and archaeologist, also began excavating in the area after a chance meeting with Calvert in Çanakkale.[4][5] These excavations revealed several cities built in succession. Troy VII has been identified with the Hittite Wilusa, the probable origin of the Greek Ἴλιον, and is generally (but not conclusively) identified with Homeric Troy.

Today, Truva is a small Turkish city supporting the tourist trade visiting the Troia archaeological site. Troia was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998.

Gallipoli, or Gelibolu in modern Turkish, (from Greek: Καλλίπολις, kallipolis, “beautiful city”),[1] is the name of a town and a district in Çanakkale Province of the Marmara region, located in Eastern Thrace in the European part of Turkey on the southern shore of the peninsula named after it on the Dardanelles strait, two miles The Macedonian city of Callipolis was founded in the 5th century B.C.[2] It has a rich history as a naval base for various rulers. The emperor Justinian I fortified Gallipoli and established important military warehouses for corn and wine there, of which some Byzantine ruins can still be seen.[2][3] After the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, Gallipoli passed into the power of Venice. In 1294 the Genoese defeated a Venetian force in the neighbourhood. A body of Almogavars, under Roger de Flor, established themselves here in 1306, and after the death of their leader massacred almost all the citizens; they were vainly besieged by the allied troops of Venice and the Empire, and withdrew in 1307, after dismantling the fortifications.[2][3] After the city’s defenses were damaged in earthquake, it was conquered by Turks in 1354 and became the first part of the Ottoman empire in Europe.[3] Bayezid I (1389–1403) built a castle and tower there which can still be seen.[2] In 1416 the Venetians under Pietro Loredan defeated the Turks here.[2] Gallipoli is the site of “tombs of the Thracian kings”,[2] which refers to the graves of the islamic writers Ahmed Bican (died 1466) and his brother Mehmed Bican (died 1451).

In 1854 the town was occupied by the allied French and British armies during the Crimean War who strengthened the defensive constructions from 1357.[2] Many soldiers died there of cholera and are buried in a local cemetery.[3] The guns of Gallipoli guarded the sea of Marmara until 1878 when more fortifications were built when the Russians threatened to take possession of Constantinople.[2] Gelibolu was the original center of Kaptanpaşa Eyalet; between 1864 and 1920 the town was the sanjak center in Edirne vilayet. In 1904 the Greek bishopric of Kallipolis was promoted to a metropolis and is listed under the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.[3]

The Bulgarian Army threatened Gelibolu during the First Balkan War and advanced to Bolayır in 1912. During the First World War the peninsula and the town were witness to a series of memorable battles (see Gallipoli Campaign). The town was occupied by Greeks between 1920–1922, and finally returned to Turkey in 1923 under the Treaty of Lausanne. Like the island Imbros off the western shore of the peninsula, Gallipoli had had a majority of Greek inhabitants prior to WWI and thus was exempted in article 2 from the Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations (1923). Between 1922 and 1926 the town was a provincial center and the districts of Gelibolu, Eceabat, Keşan (Enez became part of Keşan before 1953) and Şarköy

Galata (Greek: Γαλατά) or Galatae is a neighbourhood in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey, on the European side. Galata is located at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, the inlet which separates it from the historic peninsula of old Constantinople. The Golden Horn is crossed by several bridges, most notably the Galata Bridge. Galata (also known as Pera (Greek: Πέραν) back then) was a colony of the Republic of Genoa between 1273 and 1453. The famous Galata Tower was built by the Genoese in 1348 at the northernmost and highest point of the citadel.

There are several theories concerning the origin of the name Galata. According to the Italians, the name comes from Calata (meaning downward slope) as the neighbourhood is sloped and goes downwards to the sea from a hilltop. The Greeks believe that the name comes either from Galaktos (meaning milk, as the area was used by shepherds in the early medieval period) or from the word Galat (meaning Celtic in Greek) as the Celtic tribe of Galatians were thought to have camped here during the Hellenistic period before settling into Galatia in central Anatolia. The inhabitants of Galatia are famous for the Epistle to the Galatians and the Dying Galatian statue.

Dolmabahçe Palace was ordered to be built by the Empire’s 31st Sultan, Abdülmecid I, and built between the years 1843 and 1856. Hacı Said Ağa was responsible for the construction works, while the project was realized by Armenian architects Garabet Balyan, his son Nigoğayos Balyan, and Evanis Kalfa. The construction cost five million Ottoman mecidiye gold coins, the equivalent of 35 tonnes of gold.[1] Fourteen tonnes of gold in the form of gold leaf were used to gild the ceilings of the 45,000 square metre monoblock palace, which stands on an area of 110,000 m².[2][3]

The design contains eclectic elements from the Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassical styles, blended with traditional Ottoman architecture to create a new synthesis. The palace layout and décor reflect the increasing influence of European styles and standards on Ottoman culture and art during the Tanzimat period. Functionally, on the other hand, it retains elements of traditional Ottoman palace life, and also features of traditional Turkish homes. It is the largest palace in Turkey, considering that the area of the monoblock building occupies 45,000 m². Previously, the Sultan and his family had lived at the Topkapı Palace, but as Topkapı was lacking in up-to-date luxury and style, Abdülmecid decided to build the Dolmabahçe Palace near the site of the former Beşiktaş Palace on the Bosporus, which was demolished. Whereas the Topkapı has exquisite examples of Iznik tiles and Ottoman carving, the Dolmabahçe palace contains much gold and crystal. Tourists are free to wander Topkapı at their leisure, while the only way to see the interior of Dolmabahçe is with a guided tour.

Dolmabahçe Palace was home to six sultans from 1856, when it was first inhabited, up until the abolition of the Caliphate in 1924: The last royal to live here was Caliph Abdülmecid Efendi. A law that went into effect on March 3, 1924 transferred the ownership of the palace to the national heritage of the new Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey, used the palace as a presidential residence during the summers and enacted some of his most important works here. Atatürk spent the last days of his medical treatment in this palace, where he died on November 10, 1938.

The world’s largest Bohemian crystal chandelier is in the center hall. The chandelier, a gift from Queen Victoria, has 750 lamps and weighs 4.5 tonnes. Dolmabahçe has the largest collection of Bohemian and Baccarat crystal chandeliers in the world, and one of the great staircases has bannisters of Baccarat crystal.

The site of Dolmabahçe was originally a bay on the Bosporus which was reclaimed gradually during the 18th century to become an imperial garden, much appreciated by the Ottoman sultans; it is from this garden that the name Dolmabahçe (Filled-in Garden) comes from the Turkish dolma meaning “filled” and bahçe meaning “garden.” Various summer palaces were built here during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

Rumelihisarı (Rumelian Castle) is a fortress located in the Sarıyer district of Istanbul, Turkey, on a hill at the European side of the Bosporus. It gives the name of the quarter around it. It was built by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II between 1451 and 1452, before he conquered Constantinople. The three great towers were named after three of Mehmed II’s viziers, Sadrazam Çandarlı Halil Pasha, who built the big tower next to the gate, Zağanos Pasha, who built the south tower, and Sarıca Pasha, who built the north tower.

Rumelihisarı is situated at the narrowest point with 660 meters of the Bosporus strait, just opposite of the Anadoluhisarı on the Anatolian side, another Ottoman fortress which was built between 1393 and 1394 by Sultan Bayezid I. The place was chosen to prevent aid from the Black Sea reaching Constantinople during the Turkish siege of the city in 1453, particularly from the Genoese colonies such as Caffa, Sinop and Amasra. In a previous Ottoman attempt to conquer the city, Sultan Murad II (1404-1451) encountered difficulties due to a blockade of the Bosporous by the Byzantine fleet. The necessity of a fortress opposite of Anadoluhisarı was thus well known to the Ottomans. At this place, there was a Roman fortification in the past, which was used as a prison by the Byzantine and Genoese. Later on, a monastery was built here.

In preparation for the conquest of Constantinople, Sultan Mehmed II (1432–1481), son of Murad II, started to realize the construction of the fortress immediately following his second ascent to the throne in 1451. He refused the plea for peace of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI (1404–1453), who understood the intention of the Sultan. The construction began on 15 April 1452. Each one of the three main towers was named after the Pashas who supervised their construction, which were later named after them. The Sultan personally inspected the activities on the site. With the help of thousands of masons and workers, the fortress was completed in a record time of 4 months and 16 days on 31 August 1452

A battalion of 400 Janissaries were stationed in the fortress, and large cannons were placed in the Halil Pasha Tower, the main tower on the waterfront. A Venetian ship coming from the Black Sea which ignored the order to halt by the commander of the fortress, Firuz Ağa, was bombarded and sunk, and its surviving crewmen were impaled as a warning to any who might attempt the same. These cannons were later used until the second half of the 19th century to greet the sultan when he passed by sea.

After the fall of Constantinople, the fortress served as a customs checkpoint. Rumelihisarı, which was designated to control the passage of ships through the strait, eventually lost its strategic importance when a second pair of fortresses was built further up the Bosphorus, where the strait meets the Black Sea. In the 17th century, it was used as a prison, primarily for foreign prisoners of war. Rumelihisarı was partly destroyed by an earthquake in 1509, but was repaired soon after. In 1746, a fire destroyed all the wooden parts in two of the main towers. The fortress was repaired by Sultan Selim III (1761-1807). However, a new residential neighborhood was formed inside the fortress after it was abandoned in the 19th century.

In 1953, on the orders of President Celal Bayar, the inhabitants were relocated and extensive restoration work began on 16 May 1955, which lasted until 29 May 1958. Since 1960 Rumelihisarı has been a museum and an open-air theater for various concerts at festivals during the summer months

The Topkapı Palace (Turkish: Topkapı Sarayı)[1] or in Ottoman Turkish: طوپقپو سرايى, usually spelled “Topkapi” in English) is a palace in Istanbul, Turkey, which was the official and primary residence in the city of the Ottoman Sultans for approximately 400 years (1465-1856) of their 624-year reign.[2]

The palace was a setting for state occasions and royal entertainments and is a major tourist attraction today, containing the most holy relics of the Muslim world such as the Prophet Muhammed’s cloak and sword.[2] Topkapı Palace is among those monuments belonging to the “Historic Areas of Istanbul“, which became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985, and is described in Criterion iv as “the best example[s] of ensembles of palaces [...] of the Ottoman period.”[3]

Initial construction began in 1459, ordered by Sultan Mehmed II, the conqueror of Byzantine Constantinople. The palace is a complex made up of four main courtyards and many smaller buildings. At the height of its existence as a royal residence, the palace was home to as many as 4,000 people,[2] formerly covering a larger area with a long shoreline. The complex has been expanded over the centuries, with many renovations such as after the 1509 earthquake and 1665 fire. It held mosques, a hospital, bakeries, and a mint.[2] The name directly translates as “Cannon gate Palace”, from the palace being named after a nearby gate, which has since been destroyed.

Topkapı Palace gradually lost its importance at the end of the 17th century, as the Sultans preferred to spend more time in their new palaces along the Bosporus. In 1856, Sultan Abdül Mecid I decided to move the court to the newly built Dolmabahçe Palace, the first European-style palace in the city. Some functions, such as the imperial treasury, the library, mosque and mint, were retained though.

After the end of the Ottoman Empire in 1921, Topkapı Palace was transformed by government decree on April 3, 1924 into a museum of the imperial era. The Topkapı Palace Museum is under the administration of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. The palace complex has hundreds of rooms and chambers, but only the most important are accessible to the public today. The complex is guarded by officials of the ministry as well as armed guards of the Turkish military. The palace is full of examples of Ottoman architecture and also contains large collections of porcelain, robes, weapons, shields, armor, Ottoman miniatures, Islamic calligraphic manuscripts and murals, as well as a display of Ottoman treasure and jewelry

The Basilica Cistern (Turkish: Yerebatan Sarayı – “Sunken Palace”, or Yerebatan Sarnıcı – “Sunken Cistern”), is the largest of several hundred ancient cisterns that lie beneath the city of Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), Turkey. The cistern, located 500 feet (150 m) southwest of the Hagia Sophia on the The name of this subterranean structure derives from a large public square on the First Hill of Constantinople, the Stoa Basilica, beneath which it was originally constructed. Before being converted to a cistern, a great Basilica stood in its place, built between the 3rd and 4th centuries during the Early Roman Age as a commercial, legal and artistic center.[2] The basilica was reconstructed by Ilius after a fire in 476.

Ancient texts indicated that the basilica contained gardens, surrounded by a colonnade and facing Hagia Sophia [3] According to ancient historians, Emperor Constantine constructed a structure which was later rebuilt and enlarged by Emperor Justinian after the Nika riots of 532, which devastated the city.

Historical texts claim that 7,000 slaves were involved in the construction of the cistern.[4]

The enlarged cistern provided a water filtration system for the Great Palace of Constantinople and other buildings on the First Hill, and continued to provide water to the Topkapi Palace after the Ottoman conquest in 1453 and into modern times.

 historical peninsula of Sarayburnu, was built in the 6th century during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.[1]     

Hagia Sophia (from the Greek: Ἁγία Σοφία, “Holy Wisdom“; Latin: Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Turkish: Aya Sofya) is a former Orthodox patriarchal basilica, later a mosque, and now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. From the date of its dedication in 360 until 1453, it served as the cathedral of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople of the Western Crusader established Latin Empire. The building was a mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931, when it was secularized. It was opened as a museum on 1 February 1935.[1]

The Church was dedicated to the Logos, the second person of the Holy Trinity,[2] its dedication feast taking place on December 25, the anniversary of the incarnation of the Logos in Christ.[2] Although it is sometimes referred to as Sancta Sophia (as though it were named after Saint Sophia), sophia is the phonetic spelling in Latin of the Greek word for wisdom – the full name in Greek being Ναός τῆς Ἁγίας τοῦ Θεοῦ Σοφίας, “Church of the Holy Wisdom of God”.[3][4]

Famous in particular for its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have “changed the history of architecture.”[5] It was the largest cathedral in the world for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520. The current building was originally constructed as a church between 532 and 537 on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and was the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site, the previous two having both been destroyed by rioters. It was designed by the Greek scientists Isidore of Miletus, a physicist, and Anthemius of Tralles, a mathematician.[6]

The church contained a large collection of holy relics and featured, among other things, a 49 foot (15 m) silver iconostasis. It was the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople and the religious focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly one thousand years. It is the church in which Cardinal Humbert in 1054 excommunicated Michael I Cerularius – which is commonly considered the start of the Great Schism.

In 1453, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Mehmed II, who subsequently ordered the building converted into a mosque.[7] The bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial vessels were removed and many of the mosaics were plastered over. Islamic features — such as the mihrab, minbar, and four minarets — were added while in the possession of the Ottomans. It remained a mosque until 1931 when it was closed to the public for four years. It was re-opened in 1935 as a museum by the Republic of Turkey.

For almost 500 years the principal mosque of Istanbul, Hagia Sophia served as a model for many other Ottoman mosques, such as the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque of Istanbul), the Şehzade Mosque, the Süleymaniye Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque and the Kılıç Ali Paşa Mosque.

Aspendos

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